Iceland and Greece are geographically and culturally two contrasting countries. In Iceland emphasis is placed on the social welfare model and the social pedagogical perspective in early childhood education is respected and practiced. In view of the relative weakness of Greek economic development and civil society, the Greek centralist state has always played a dominant role in education in general and particularly in preschool education. It is expected that these social and cultural differences are mirrored in the preschool curricula of the two countries. In this paper the National curriculum guidelines of both countries were compared. Content analysis was applied to compare cultural values and pedagogical objectives in these documents. It was found that the Icelandic National Curriculum Guidelines (2003) puts the emphasis on play and on the development of “life skills”, whereas in the National Greek Cross-thematic Curriculum Framework (2003) cognitive approach is predominant.