ΤΕΥΧΟΣ 20-21

ΤΕΥΧΟΣ 20-21

ISSUE 20-21

Spring - Autumn 2013

EDITORIAL

Α. Kazamias

CONTENTS

Citizenship education, as well as civic education as its core subject, can be discussed either as a pedagogical ideal proposed for an educational system free from historical, political and economic restrictions, or as an alternative proposal for the current reality of citizenship education within an already existing, real educational system. The membership of Greece in the European Union and its participation in the global political and economic reality, accompanied by the presence of a relatively large number of migrants and refugees in the last twenty years, have changed the conditions under which citizenship education is conceived and implemented for the Greek schools. The model for the new citizen comes from a notion of multicultural society and intercultural education where the principles of virtual solutions for real problems, political correctness and policies of affirmative action prevail over grounded theory for the education of the democratic and participating citizen. The responsibility for this development lies not only by the policy makers, but also by academics who legitimate and implement ideologically conform but highly controversial pedagogical solutions to composite problems.

Tackling the complex relationship between political education (civics) and the different forms of politicization, the paper focuses on a number of crucial prerequisites for a critical analysis of the Greek case in comparative perspective. It is argued that the significance and the impact of political education need to be addressed with reference to its contribution to different forms and modalities of politicization, quite apart from benchmarking and the other methods that power centers (at the local, regional, national, EU, and international level) use in order to assess education. The case of political education in a multicultural society is approached as an especially critical case for the analysis of the links between education, identity, shared beliefs, and politicization. The article concludes by exploring different analytical and normative models of political education from the perspective of the relations between cognitive and moral concerns.

This article looks at the relationship between education and democracy and, drawing from republican political theory, examines the civic potential of the first pan-European citizenship education programme which aims to encourage the young to participate in democratic life at both societal and school levels. It also revisits the dynamics of European party political evolution and the opportunities it offers for civic engagement. All the above can contribute to the making of a civitas Europaea composed of multiple democratic publics conscious of their collective civic identity.

This is a comparative historical analysis of the discourse on citizenship and citizenship education, a subject of contemporary significance the world over, as it is articulated in three historical contexts: (a) the ancient Athenian polis (b) the modern ethnopolis (nation-state), and (c) the late modern cosmopolis. It is argued that in the Athenian polis a citizen was one who participated actively in public life, and one who belonged to the political community. The citizen’s education consisted mainly of “humanistic” studies (e.g. “music”, which also included literature, drama and history). In the modern ethnopolis, the main discourse was the development of a national democratic citizen, who possessed certain rights, not an active citizen as in the Athenian polis. The education of the modern citizen was carried out through cognitive areas such as history, geography and civics. In the cosmopolis there is a tendency to construct a multicultural rather than a monocultural active citizen. Citizenship education is centered in the cultivation of knowledge, skills, attitudes and dispositions through the open school curriculum, especially history and civics, the hidden curriculum, extra curricular activities, including community activities, school councils and  relevant rituals.

This presentation  deals with some of the fundamental concerns relating to the present-day concept of citizen from the perspective of Comparative Education (CE), as they pertain to the current context in politics and ideology, economy and society, culture and education. In this framework we propose that modern CE could study three dimensions/levels of the citizen: a. The micro-dimension or micro-realisation, which relates to the personal dimension of citizen, i.e. as socio-psychic entities, how he learns through school to participate in political and social processes; b. The medio-level, or medio-realisation, which has to do with the socio-spatial dimension, i.e. as active members of local, national and wider society, how citizens co-operate, participate and work in common with others within the context of their wider environment; and finally, c. The macro-level or macro-realisation, which relates to the socio-temporal dimension,  to how citizens see themselves as members of national and wider multinational space, and how they define themselves within the context of they society in which they live, on the basis of their past and present, which to some extent determine their future. We argue that CE needs to focus on the following needs: the need to free studies from ethnocentric comparisons and analyses,  the need to seek out wider issues on the micro-/ medio- / and macro-levels, relating to the concept of citizen in the 21st century, the need to develop the concept of the universal citizen in terms of world-society, the need for transition from a globalisation based on economics to one founded on culture or solidarity. We believe that in this transition, CE has an important role to play, and that an educational and cultural reality that takes the citizen as its starting point one can be linked to it. For that very reason, CE must enter a period of rethinking and of new outlooks on things and concepts. In other words, it will be capable of studying collective forms of human action on the educational, cultural and political level. It will look at the new challenges in the area of production-based society and international level science, as well as at the orientation of values in the so-called “information society” or “knowledge society”. We argue that in our days Homo Politicus, is the Homo Comparativus who is identified with a new, humanistic and global Comparative Education.

Liberal democracy developed in parallel with the emergence of the nation-state, which allowed freedom and solidarity among its members and, by extension, political unity, while the model of citizenship and distributed rights were determined by national identity. This led to liberal democracy being permeated by a fundamental contradiction between the universality of its liberal values ​​and the particularism of the national community, within which it developed historically. This contradiction highlights the question of whether it is possible – in the conditions of modern multicultural societies – to create the conditions that will allow the synthesis of liberal universal values ​​with the values ​​of national identity in the context of a democratic society, while ensuring its unity.

The democratic school is also faced with the dilemmas of universality or particularism, individual freedoms or – anti-liberal – communal ethics, teaching civil liberty (personal identity) or the cultivation of discipline in an established moral community (collective identity). The key question here is whether the democratic school can promote a sense of citizenship founded on universal values ​​and simultaneously cultivate a common political morality, within which it will be able to reconcile the universal with the national values.

On a theoretical level, a possible answer to these questions is a republican form of political culture, and a corresponding sense of citizenship, cultivated in the democratic school, which brings together civil liberties / identities in the framework of a democratic ethos, understood as the product of an interaction between citizens, without discrimination in the distribution of rights and freedoms. Such democratic ethics cannot give priority to any identity and must harmonize, in conditions of equality, civil liberties with the interests of the – national – community “through continuously imperilled and revisable compositions.”

The notion of “european citizenship” has been historically connected, both at the symbolic and pragmatic level, with the european societies integration and unification processes. This paper examines critically the european citizenship paradigm in the context of the European Union’s institutional, political and educational transformation. It is argued that EU’s discourses and practices have been characterized by a weak ideological and symbolic content, have been dominated by political and social deficits and are deeply controlled by an economic and technocratic rationale (marketization, govermentality, audit culture, benchmarking, etc.), literally establishing a “measurable” Europe of knowledge, governing by numbers.

This article sheds light on the initiatives and measures taken for the introduction of Citizenship Education in the Greek educational system during the 20th century as well as the historical evolution of different paradigms of political education.  In the first part we present the efforts made for the introduction of contents related to the education of citizen till the beginning of the 20th century. The basic axes of ‘Education of the Citizen’, which is the dominant paradigm of political education during the after-war period, are also analyzed in strong connection with the specific sociopolitical context. In the second part we detect the main components of civic education during ’70s and ’80s. The changes in civic and political education inside the Greek educational context during 1990 and 2000 are elaborated in the third part of the article. In the last part problems in teaching social and political education in the Greek case are detected and suggestions are made concerning the contents of this course and the teaching methods.

Citizenship education in the United State has historically taken many forms. Since Horace Mann laid the foundations for the common school in the mid-19th century, many have claimed that producing citizens is the prime function of public education, and a necessity for the maintenance of a healthy democracy. Others have taken a more functional view on the role of schools in educating citizens, focusing their attention on the acquisition of foundational skills like literacy and numeracy, and some knowledge of government. Citizenship education “for” democracy has always been confounded by the stark inequalities, and lack of democratic processes, that characterize most American schools. This ethnographic essay explores these topics through an investigation of citizenship education in one “diverse” American high school, where competing agendas and principles are readily visible in curricula and school management. The essay concludes by asking not just how citizenship education is delivered, but what kinds of citizens are envisioned, and what kinds are produced.

This paper critically examines the role of constitutional doctrine in the formation of different aims and policies for citizenship education in Greece and the United States of America. First, the philosophical and ideological underpinnings of the liberal conception “citizen” are outlined. Next, the different conceptualizations, which emerge from reading the constitutional texts, are examined. It is concluded that the different conceptions of the citizen have historically contributed to the formation of different aims for citizenship education in each country. Based on this conclusion and given the erosion of the welfare state in recent years, the paper closes with a call to redefine the philosophical and ideological principles that underlie the education of democratic citizens in contemporary liberal pluralistic societies.

This essay revisits the problem of promoting citizenship in the Greek community of Cyprus.  The first part presents the historical circumstances ,the political,  sociocultural and educational contexts and some important recent events that affected the significance of the problem. The second part gives an account of the findings of a recent major  research on citizenship in Cyprus and discusses  the ways in which these findings can help the schools, the society and the polity to become more effective in their efforts to advance citizenship in Cyprus.

Τhis study examines the place of music in the educational discourse in Ancient and Modern Greece as well as its role in shaping the «human – citizen». Firstly, it investigates the place of Music Education in Ancient Greece focusing on the discourse of Plato and Aristotle. Secondly, it examines the place of music in the educational system in Modern Greece focusing on the official curriculum.

Additionally, it presents a case study of teaching music at the 9th Elementary School of Chania in order to demonstrate how Music Education can influence and shape the political consciousness of students and the future of an active citizen.

During the last decades, Citizenship Education in developed societies is formed as a field with increasing interest, making it the subject of one of the four educational priorities of the European Union. A key component of this education is the development of the students’ ability to familiarize themselves with political knowledge, obtaining the confidence required by their future role as active citizens of a multi-level rapidly transforming social reality. In terms of a more experiential-emancipatory education of students, as this seems to be selected by the European Commission’s text, this article is a content analysis of the teaching package for the subject of Social and Political Education taught in the 3rd Class of Gymnasium in the fields of a) the school knowledge selected as content and b) the educational and teaching framework, where they are redefining content choices. The research demonstrates the effort to introduce new practices that encourage critical analysis of the concepts and familiarization with social and political life. It also demonstrates the important role of the teacher as a key modulator of the school climate and teaching practice, given that they are key factors towards the reflective processing of the students’ already formed perceptions of their social involvement .